Dipendenza da alcol: la riabilitazione alcologica
The city is an important economic, transportation, scientific, educational and cultural center in Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic regionand is the main center of river tourism in Russia. In the historic part of the city there is a large number of universities, theaters, museums and churches. In Nizhny Novgorod became a great trade center of the Russian Empire.
In at a fairan All-Russia Exhibition was organized. During the Soviet periodthe city turned into an important industrial center. In particular, the Gorky Automobile Plant was constructed in this period. Then the city was given the nickname "Russian Detroit ". Due to this, the Luftwaffe constantly bombed the city from the air.
The majority of the German bombs fell in the area of the Gorky Automobile Plant. Although almost all the production cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo of the plant were completely destroyed, the citizens of Gorky reconstructed the factory after days.
After the war, Gorky became a " closed city " and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in At that time, the city was renamed Nizhny Novgorod once again. Inthe Nizhny Novgorod Metro was opened.
The Kremlin — the main center of the city — contains the main government agencies of the city and the Volga Federal District. Novgorodian is inappropriate; it refers to a resident of Veliky Novgorodin northwestern Russia. Originally the name was just Novgorod "Newtown"but to distinguish it from the other, older and well-known Novgorod Veliky Novgorod to the west, the city was commonly called "Novgorod of the Lower lands", or "Lower Newtown".
It marked the eastern extreme of East Slavic settlement until the end of the medieval period, with Russian expansion eastward delayed until the capture of Kazan in Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a natural moat formed by the two rivers. Along with Moscow cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo TverNizhny Novgorod was among several newly founded towns cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo escaped Mongol devastation on account of their insignificance, but grew into great centers in vassalic Russian political life during the period of the Tatar Yoke.
After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich — sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; he built a stone citadel and several churches and was a patron of historians. The earliest extant manuscript of cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo Russian Primary Chroniclethe Laurentian Codexwas written for him by the local monk Laurentius in After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu inNizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan.
The enormous red-brick kremlincliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in — under the supervision of Peter the Italian. The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in and Inthe so-called "national militia", gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Mininand commanded by Knyaz Dmitry Pozharsky expelled the Polish troops from Moscow, thus putting an end to the " Time of Troubles " and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty.
The main square in front of the Kremlin is named after Minin and Pozharskyalthough it is locally known simply as Minin Square. Minin's remains are cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo in the citadel. In commemoration of these events, on October 21,an exact copy of the Red Square statue of Minin and Pozharsky was placed in front of St John the Baptist Church, which is believed to be the place from cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo the call to the people had been proclaimed.
In the course of the following century, cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo city prospered commercially and was chosen by the Stroganovs the wealthiest merchant family of Russia as a base for their operations.
A particular style of architecture and icon painting, known as the Stroganov styledeveloped there at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. The historical coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod in was a red cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo with black horns and hooves on a white field.
The cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo coat of arms from cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo the same, with a ribbon of order of Lenin and gold crown from above. Inthe Makaryev Fairone of the liveliest in cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, and started to attract millions of visitors annually.
By the midth century, the city was firmly established as the trade capital of the Russian Empire. The world's first radio receiver by engineer Alexander Popov and the world's first hyperboloid tower and lattice shell-coverings by engineer Vladimir Shukhov were demonstrated at the All-Russia industrial and art exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod in According to official Imperial Russian statistics the population of Nizhny Novgorod as of 14 January was 97, The largest industrial enterprise was the Sormovo Iron Works which was connected by the company's own railway to Moscow station in the Cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo Area of Nizhny Novgorod.
Other industries gradually developed, and by the start of the 20th century the city was also a first-rank industrial hub.
Henry Ford helped build a large truck and tractor plant GAZ in the late s, sending engineers and mechanics, including future labour leader Walter Reuther. There were no permanent bridges over the Volga or Oka before the October Revolution in Temporary bridges cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo built during the trade fair. The first bridge over the Volga was started by the Moscow—Kazan Railway Company inbut only finished in the Soviet Era when the railway to Kotelnich was opened for service in In his novels he described the dismal life of the city proletariat.
When he returned to the Soviet Union in on the invitation of Joseph Stalinthe city was renamed Gorky. The city bore Gorky's name until His childhood home is preserved as a museum, known as the Kashirin House, after Alexey's grandfather who owned the place. The Germans tried to destroy the city industry because it was the main supplier of military equipment to the front. During much of the Soviet era, the city was closed to foreigners to safeguard the security of Soviet military research and production facilities, even though it was a popular stopping point for Soviet tourists traveling up and down the Volga in tourist boats.
Unusually for a Soviet city of that size, even street maps were not available for sale until the mids. November 20, in the city was launched the first section of the metro. The physicist and Nobel laureate Andrei Sakharov was exiled there during — to limit his contacts with foreigners.
An end to the "closed" status of the city accompanied the reinstatement of the city's original name in Dmitrovskaya tower of the Kremlin. Church of the Nativity. The Spit confluence of Oka and Volga Rivers. Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street. Nizhny Novgorod is divided by the Oka River into two distinct parts. It includes three of the eight city districts into which the city is administratively divided:.
For a long time it was the third-largest city after Moscow and St Petersburg. Daylight saving time is no longer observed. In the first weather station was opened in Nizhny Novgorod. A century later it transformed into Gorky Hydrometeorological service, then since it is known as the Higher Volga hydrometeorology and natural habitat control department.
The climate in the region is continental, specifically humid continental Dfband it is similar to the climate in Moscowalthough colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover.
Nizhny receives on average 1 hours of sunshine a year. The maximum duration of daylight is in June 17 hours 44 minutesthe minimum - in December 6 hours 52 minutes. In autumn and winter the overcast is usually in the mornings, then the sky clears in the afternoon. In spring and summer, on the contrary, it is clear in the mornings, while towards midday clouds cluster ' cumulus cloud 'and disappear towards the evening. In spring temperatures set above zero around April 5th and stay until the end of October.
On average precipitation comes at mm per year, mostly in July and least of all in March. Generally, days out of enjoy some form of precipitation. Snow first comes in October but the blanket of snow insulates the ground at November-end and melts mid-April. A storm rarely takes place in winter here a few dates to mention are 27 November30 November14 Februaryand 3 December In spring there's less precipitation than in other seasons.
Spring flies by as snow melts in the second half of March and is normally gone by the end of April. Maximum heat can be observed towards the third decade of July. Summer rain is short but intense, with strong wind. It rains often and heavily in autumnthe sky is overcast. Nizhny Novgorod is one of the centers of the IT industry in Russia. Intel has a big software research and development center with more than engineers in the cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo, as well as a major datacenter.
Nizhny Novgorod has also been chosen as one of four sites for building an IT-oriented technology park — a special zone that has an established infrastructure and enjoys a favorable tax and customs policy.
Public transportation within the city is provided by a tramsmarshrutkas routed taxisbuses, and trolleybuses. Electric and diesel commuter trains run to suburbs in several directions. Nizhny Novgorod Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in ; it now has two lines with 15 stations, connecting with railway terminaland carryingpassengers daily. Together with the metro it forms a system of high-speed rail transport of the city.
It has two lines: Sormovskaya and Priokskaya. It was cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo on June 24, on the basis of the Gorky Railwayas an addition to the metro. Sincethere has been a railway connection between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow. Nizhny Novgorod is an important center of Volga cargo and passenger shipping. In a small number of Meteor-class hydrofoils resumed operations on cliniche in Nizhniy Novgorod da alcolismo Volga river.
In Augustriver navigation within the region was resumed. The system of Nizhny Novgorod's bus terminals underwent significant changes inas the old main intercity bus terminal in Lyadov Square just south of downtown closed, and a new bus terminal opened in Scherbinki, a few miles to the south.
Out of the three bus terminals, only the Kanavino station is near a subway line; the other two are connected with the rest of the city by city buses. Inthe cableway connecting Nizhny Novgorod and Bor was launched.
It has the largest unsupported span in Europe above the water surface is metres 2, feet. The main purpose is to provide an alternative type of passenger transportation in addition to river taxis, electric trains and buses. The cable car has also become a popular tourist attraction, thanks to panoramic views from the cabins. July 31, on the cable car there was an incident.
The lightning struck a metal support near the booth in which people were.